Ciencia habilitada por datos de especímenes

Bywater‐Reyes, S., R. M. Diehl, A. C. Wilcox, J. C. Stella, and L. Kui. 2022. A Green New Balance: Interactions among riparian vegetation plant traits and morphodynamics in alluvial rivers. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 47: 2410–2436. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.5385

The strength of interactions between plants and river processes is mediated by plant traits and fluvial conditions, including above‐ground biomass, stem density and flexibility, channel and bed material properties, and flow and sediment regimes. In many rivers, concurrent changes in 1) the composition of riparian vegetation communities as a result of exotic species invasion and 2) shifts in hydrology have altered physical and ecological conditions in a manner that has been mediated by feedbacks between vegetation and morphodynamic processes. We review how Tamarix, which has invaded many U.S. Southwest waterways, and Populus species, woody pioneer trees that are native to the region, differentially affect hydraulics, sediment transport, and river morphology. We draw on flume, field, and modeling approaches spanning the individual seedling to river‐corridor scales. In a flume study, we found differences in the crown morphology, stem density, and flexibility of Tamarix compared to Populus influenced near‐bed flow velocities in a manner that favored aggradation associated with Tamarix. Similarly, at the patch and corridor scales, observations confirmed increased aggradation with increased vegetation density. Furthermore, long‐term channel adjustments were different for Tamarix‐ versus Populus‐dominated reaches, with faster and greater geomorphic adjustments for Tamarix. Collectively, our studies show how plant‐trait differences between Tamarix and Populus, from individual seedlings to larger spatial and temporal scales, influence the co‐adjustment of rivers and riparian plant communities. These findings provide a basis for predicting changes in alluvial riverine systems which we conceptualize as a Green New Balance model that considers how channels may adjust to changes in plant traits and community structure in additional to alterations in flow and sediment supply. We offer suggestions regarding how the Green New Balance can be used in management and invasive species management.

Martinez, A., J. M. Acosta, M. A. Ferrero, F. B. Pastore, and L. Aagesen. 2022. Evolutionary patterns within the New World Clade Polygala sections Clinclinia and Monninopsis (Polygalaceae). Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 55: 125673. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ppees.2022.125673

Members of Sections Clinclinia and Monninopsis, from the New World Clade (NWC) of Polygala, inhabit arid to humid habitats along the American continent. Although knowledge of these sections is currently incomplete, it is crucial for understanding evolutionary and diversification patterns in Polygalaceae. Here, we sample new species from the Polygala NWC with emphasis on these two sections, providing a comprehensive molecular phylogeny based on DNA sequence data from one nuclear (ITS) and three chloroplast (trnL-F intergenic spacer, rbcL, and partial matK-trnK) loci. Furthermore, we conducted comparisons for the main clades in the environmental and geographic spaces using climatic and elevation data processed by ordination and species distribution modelling (SDM) techniques and an ancestral state reconstruction for two morphological flower traits. The study is useful as a first approach to understand the phylogenetic, environmental, and morphological patterns shaping the geographical distribution of the main clades of the sections. The phylogenetic analyses supported at least six distinct lineages within the study group, three in Sect. Clinclinia, and three in Sect. Monninopsis. An updated synonymic list of the Sects. Clinclinia and Monninopsis as treated in this study is also provided.

Chevalier, M. 2022. <i>crestr</i>: an R package to perform probabilistic climate reconstructions from palaeoecological datasets. Climate of the Past 18: 821–844. https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-18-821-2022

Abstract. Statistical climate reconstruction techniques are fundamental tools to study past climate variability from fossil proxy data. In particular, the methods based on probability density functions (or PDFs) can be used in various environments and with different climate proxies because they rely on elementary calibration data (i.e. modern geolocalised presence data). However, the difficulty of accessing and curating these calibration data and the complexity of interpreting probabilistic results have often limited their use in palaeoclimatological studies. Here, I introduce a new R package (crestr) to apply the PDF-based method CREST (Climate REconstruction SofTware) on diverse palaeoecological datasets and address these problems. crestr includes a globally curated calibration dataset for six common climate proxies (i.e. plants, beetles, chironomids, rodents, foraminifera, and dinoflagellate cysts) associated with an extensive range of climate variables (20 terrestrial and 19 marine variables) that enables its use in most terrestrial and marine environments. Private data collections can also be used instead of, or in combination with, the provided calibration dataset. The package includes a suite of graphical diagnostic tools to represent the data at each step of the reconstruction process and provide insights into the effect of the different modelling assumptions and external factors that underlie a reconstruction. With this R package, the CREST method can now be used in a scriptable environment and thus be more easily integrated with existing workflows. It is hoped that crestr will be used to produce the much-needed quantified climate reconstructions from the many regions where they are currently lacking, despite the availability of suitable fossil records. To support this development, the use of the package is illustrated with a step-by-step replication of a 790 000-year-long mean annual temperature reconstruction based on a pollen record from southeastern Africa.

Li, D., Z. Li, Z. Liu, Y. Yang, A. G. Khoso, L. Wang, and D. Liu. 2022. Climate change simulations revealed potentially drastic shifts in insect community structure and crop yields in China’s farmland. Journal of Pest Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-022-01479-3

Climate change will cause drastic fluctuations in agricultural ecosystems, which in turn may affect global food security. We used ecological niche modeling to predict the potential distribution for four cereal aphids (i.e., Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, Schizaphis graminum, and Diurphis noxia…

Escobar-Gómez, D. N., J. V. Horta-Vega, C. S. Venegas-Barrera, J. M. Coronado-Blanco, M. Vanoye-Eligio, and A. Correa-Sandoval. 2021. Distribución geográfica potencial de las especies del género Tachysphex (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) en México. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 92: 923721. https://doi.org/10.22201/ib.20078706e.2021.92.3721

Las avispas del género Tachysphex (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) son cosmopolitas con 56 especies conocidas en México. Utilizando la herramienta MaxEnt y estadística multivariada se caracterizó la distribución geográfica potencial de 48 de esas especies, más 4 de la frontera sur de EUA, en relación a la…

Beaulieu, W. T., D. G. Panaccione, Q. N. Quach, K. L. Smoot, and K. Clay. 2021. Diversification of ergot alkaloids and heritable fungal symbionts in morning glories. Communications Biology 4. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02870-z

Heritable microorganisms play critical roles in life cycles of many macro-organisms but their prevalence and functional roles are unknown for most plants. Bioactive ergot alkaloids produced by heritable Periglandula fungi occur in some morning glories (Convolvulaceae), similar to ergot alkaloids in …

Vasconcelos, T., J. D. Boyko, and J. M. Beaulieu. 2021. Linking mode of seed dispersal and climatic niche evolution in flowering plants. Journal of Biogeography. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14292

Aim: Due to the sessile nature of flowering plants, movements to new geographical areas occur mainly during seed dispersal. Frugivores tend to be efficient dispersers because animals move within the boundaries of their preferable niches, so seeds are more likely to be transported to environments tha…

Wham, B. E., S. R. Rahman, M. Martinez‐Correa, and H. M. Hines. 2021. Mito‐nuclear discordance at a mimicry color transition zone in bumble bee Bombus melanopygus. Ecology and Evolution 11: 18151–18168. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8412

As hybrid zones exhibit selective patterns of gene flow between otherwise distinct lineages, they can be especially valuable for informing processes of microevolution and speciation. The bumble bee, Bombus melanopygus, displays two distinct color forms generated by Müllerian mimicry: a northern “Roc…

Méndez-Camacho, K., O. Leon-Alvarado, and D. R. Miranda-Esquivel. 2021. Biogeographic evidence supports the Old Amazon hypothesis for the formation of the Amazon fluvial system. PeerJ 9: e12533. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.12533

The Amazon has high biodiversity, which has been attributed to different geological events such as the formation of rivers. The Old and Young Amazon hypotheses have been proposed regarding the date of the formation of the Amazon basin. Different studies of historical biogeography support the Young A…

García‐Rodríguez, A., M. D. Basanta, M. G. García‐Castillo, H. Zumbado‐Ulate, K. Neam, S. Rovito, C. L. Searle, and G. Parra‐Olea. 2021. Anticipating the potential impacts of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans on Neotropical salamander diversity. Biotropica 54: 157–169. https://doi.org/10.1111/btp.13042

Emergent infectious disease caused by the fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) represents one of the major causes of biodiversity loss in amphibians. While Bd has affected amphibians worldwide, Bsal remains restricted to Asia and Europe, b…