Ciencia habilitada por datos de especímenes

Anon. 2023. Ecological Niche Modelling of an Industrially Important Mushroom - Ganoderma lucidum (Leys.) Karsten: A Machine Learning Global Appraisal. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research 82.

Species Distribution Modelling (SDM) involves utilizing observations of a given species and its surrounding environment to produce a sound approximation of the species' potential distribution. The intricate relationships between organisms and their surroundings, coupled with the profusion of data, have captured the attention of ecologists and statisticians alike. Consequently, they have directed their efforts towards exploring the potential of machine learning techniques. Our study employs an ensemble machine learning approach to simulate the global ecological niche modelling of Ganoderma lucidum fungus. This involves the utilization of various environmental predictors and the averaging of multiple algorithms to achieve a comprehensive analysis. 563 spatially thinned presence points of G. lucidum were projected with three bio-climatic time frames, namely current, 2050, and 2070, and four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), namely 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5, as well as non-climatic variables (surface soil features, land use, rooting depth and water storage capacity at rooting zone). We observed excellent model qualities as the Area Under the receiver operating Curve (AUC) approached 0.90. Random Forest was identified as the best individual algorithm, while the Maxent entropy was identified as the least effective for Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) of G. lucidum. Globally, under the current bio-climatic and non-bioclimatic projection, optimum habitat for this fungus covers 12510876.3 km2 area while, maximum area (13248546.9 Sq. km.) under this habitat class with future projections was recorded with RCP of 8.5 in 2070. The primary determinants of its current global distribution were ecosystem rooting depth, water storage capacity, and precipitation seasonality. While, with two future bioclimatic time frames and RCPs, Isothermality was identified as the most influential predictor. Based on our assessment, it has been determined that this particular fungus is exhibiting a persistent pattern of proliferation across the regions of Europe, America, and certain areas of India. The present investigation sought to underscore the importance of discerning the native habitats of this species, taking into account both current and anticipated climatic shifts. This knowledge is essential for effectively coordinating the artificial cultivation and natural harvesting of G. lucidum, which is necessary to meet the ever-increasing industrial demands.

Kolanowska, M. 2023. Loss of fungal symbionts and changes in pollinator availability caused by climate change will affect the distribution and survival chances of myco-heterotrophic orchid species. Scientific Reports 13.

The first comprehensive species distribution models for orchid, its fungal symbionts and pollinator are presented. To evaluate impact of global warming on these organisms three different projections and four various climate change scenarios were analysed. The niche modelling was based on presence-only records of Limodorum abortivum , two species of Russula and three insects pollinating orchid ( Anthophora affinis, Bombus terrestris, Rhodanthidium septemdentatum ). Two sets of orchid predictions were examined—the first one included only climatic data and the second one was based on climate data and data on future distribution of orchid fungal symbionts. Overall, a poleward range shift is predicted to occur as a result of climate change and apparently global warming will be favorable for L. abortivum and its potential geographical range will expand. However, due to the negative effect of global warming on fungal symbionts of L. abortivum , the actual extension of the suitable niches of the orchid will be much limited. Considering future possibility of cross-pollination, the availability of A. affinis for L. abortivum will decrease and this bee will be available in the worst case scenarios only for 21% of orchid populations. On the other hand, the overlap of orchid and the buff-tailed bumblebee will increase and as much as 86.5% of plant populations will be located within B. terrestris potential range. Also the availability of R. septemdentatum will be higher than currently observed in almost all analysed climate change projections. This study showed the importance of inclusion of ecological factors in species distribution models as the climate data itself are not enough to estimate the future distribution of plant species. Moreover, the availability of pollen vectors which is crucial for long-term survival of orchid populations should be analysed in context of climate changes.

Marcussen, T., H. E. Ballard, J. Danihelka, A. R. Flores, M. V. Nicola, and J. M. Watson. 2022. A Revised Phylogenetic Classification for Viola (Violaceae). Plants 11: 2224.

The genus Viola (Violaceae) is among the 40–50 largest genera among angiosperms, yet its taxonomy has not been revised for nearly a century. In the most recent revision, by Wilhelm Becker in 1925, the then-known 400 species were distributed among 14 sections and numerous unranked groups. Here, we provide an updated, comprehensive classification of the genus, based on data from phylogeny, morphology, chromosome counts, and ploidy, and based on modern principles of monophyly. The revision is presented as an annotated global checklist of accepted species of Viola, an updated multigene phylogenetic network and an ITS phylogeny with denser taxon sampling, a brief summary of the taxonomic changes from Becker’s classification and their justification, a morphological binary key to the accepted subgenera, sections and subsections, and an account of each infrageneric subdivision with justifications for delimitation and rank including a description, a list of apomorphies, molecular phylogenies where possible or relevant, a distribution map, and a list of included species. We distribute the 664 species accepted by us into 2 subgenera, 31 sections, and 20 subsections. We erect one new subgenus of Viola (subg. Neoandinium, a replacement name for the illegitimate subg. Andinium), six new sections (sect. Abyssinium, sect. Himalayum, sect. Melvio, sect. Nematocaulon, sect. Spathulidium, sect. Xanthidium), and seven new subsections (subsect. Australasiaticae, subsect. Bulbosae, subsect. Clausenianae, subsect. Cleistogamae, subsect. Dispares, subsect. Formosanae, subsect. Pseudorupestres). Evolution within the genus is discussed in light of biogeography, the fossil record, morphology, and particular traits. Viola is among very few temperate and widespread genera that originated in South America. The biggest identified knowledge gaps for Viola concern the South American taxa, for which basic knowledge from phylogeny, chromosome counts, and fossil data is virtually absent. Viola has also never been subject to comprehensive anatomical study. Studies into seed anatomy and morphology are required to understand the fossil record of the genus.

Vasconcelos, T., J. D. Boyko, and J. M. Beaulieu. 2021. Linking mode of seed dispersal and climatic niche evolution in flowering plants. Journal of Biogeography.

Aim: Due to the sessile nature of flowering plants, movements to new geographical areas occur mainly during seed dispersal. Frugivores tend to be efficient dispersers because animals move within the boundaries of their preferable niches, so seeds are more likely to be transported to environments tha…

TREVIÑO-ZEVALLOS, I., I. GARCÍA-CUNCHILLOS, and C. LADO. 2021. New records of Myxomycetes (Amoebozoa) from the tropical Andes. Phytotaxa 522: 231–239.

The Myxomycetes comprise a remarkably diverse group of organisms within Amoebozoa, with over 1000 species currently recognized. These organisms, at the end of their life cycles produce fruiting bodies which are the basis for their systematics. Despite being a biodiversity hotspot, the tropical Andes…

Mienna, I. M., J. D. M. Speed, M. Bendiksby, A. H. Thornhill, B. D. Mishler, and M. D. Martin. 2019. Differential patterns of floristic phylogenetic diversity across a post‐glacial landscape. Journal of Biogeography 47: 915–926.

Aim: In this study, we explored spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity (PD) and endemism in the flora of Norway and tested hypothesized post‐glacial environmental drivers of PD, including temperature, precipitation, edaphic factors and time since glacial retreat. Location: Norway. Taxon: Vascula…