Ciencia habilitada por datos de especímenes

Werchan, M., B. Werchan, P. Bogawski, F. Mousavi, M. Metz, and K.-C. Bergmann. 2024. An emerging aeroallergen in Europe: Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima [Mill.] Swingle) inventory and pollen concentrations – Taking a metropolitan region in Germany as an example. Science of The Total Environment 930: 172519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.172519

Urban areas are often hotspots for the dissemination of non-native (invasive) plant species, some of which release (potentially) allergenic pollen. Given the high population density in cities, a considerable number of people can be regularly and potentially intensively exposed to the pollen from these plants. This study delves into the Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima, [Mill.] Swingle), native to East Asia, which is known for its high invasiveness in temperate regions worldwide, particularly favoring urban colonization. This study explores the botanical and aerobiological dimensions of this species using the central European metropolitan region of Berlin, Germany, as a case study, and provides a comprehensive global overview of allergological insights.The number of Ailanthus trees decreased markedly from the center to the periphery of Berlin City, following a temperature gradient. The same spatial trend was mirrored by airborne Ailanthus pollen concentrations measured with volumetric spore traps (Hirst-type) at five sites using seven traps. Ailanthus pollen was most abundant around midday and in the afternoon, with concentrations tenfold higher at street level than at roof level. The Ailanthus flowering period in June and July coincided well with the pollen season. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to investigate Ailanthus altissima pollen production. On average, 5539 pollen grains were found per anther. A literature review on the allergy relevance of Ailanthus altissima pollen indicates the high allergenic potential of pollen from this species.Considering the anticipated expansion of suitable habitats for Ailanthus owing to global warming and the allergological significance of its pollen, it is recommended to include Ailanthus pollen in routine pollen monitoring, particularly in areas colonized by this species. This comprehensive study provides new insights into a pollen taxon whose significance as an emerging aeroallergen should be factored into plant selection and greenspace management in all temperate regions.

Serra‐Diaz, J. M., J. Borderieux, B. Maitner, C. C. F. Boonman, D. Park, W. Guo, A. Callebaut, et al. 2024. occTest: An integrated approach for quality control of species occurrence data. Global Ecology and Biogeography. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13847

Aim Species occurrence data are valuable information that enables one to estimate geographical distributions, characterize niches and their evolution, and guide spatial conservation planning. Rapid increases in species occurrence data stem from increasing digitization and aggregation efforts, and citizen science initiatives. However, persistent quality issues in occurrence data can impact the accuracy of scientific findings, underscoring the importance of filtering erroneous occurrence records in biodiversity analyses.InnovationWe introduce an R package, occTest, that synthesizes a growing open‐source ecosystem of biodiversity cleaning workflows to prepare occurrence data for different modelling applications. It offers a structured set of algorithms to identify potential problems with species occurrence records by employing a hierarchical organization of multiple tests. The workflow has a hierarchical structure organized in testPhases (i.e. cleaning vs. testing) that encompass different testBlocks grouping different testTypes (e.g. environmental outlier detection), which may use different testMethods (e.g. Rosner test, jacknife,etc.). Four different testBlocks characterize potential problems in geographic, environmental, human influence and temporal dimensions. Filtering and plotting functions are incorporated to facilitate the interpretation of tests. We provide examples with different data sources, with default and user‐defined parameters. Compared to other available tools and workflows, occTest offers a comprehensive suite of integrated tests, and allows multiple methods associated with each test to explore consensus among data cleaning methods. It uniquely incorporates both coordinate accuracy analysis and environmental analysis of occurrence records. Furthermore, it provides a hierarchical structure to incorporate future tests yet to be developed.Main conclusionsoccTest will help users understand the quality and quantity of data available before the start of data analysis, while also enabling users to filter data using either predefined rules or custom‐built rules. As a result, occTest can better assess each record's appropriateness for its intended application.

Ramírez-Barahona, S. 2024. Incorporating fossils into the joint inference of phylogeny and biogeography of the tree fern order Cyatheales R. Warnock, and M. Zelditch [eds.],. Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1093/evolut/qpae034

Present-day geographic and phylogenetic patterns often reflect the geological and climatic history of the planet. Neontological distribution data are often sufficient to unravel a lineage’s biogeographic history, yet ancestral range inferences can be at odds with fossil evidence. Here, I use the fossilized birth–death process and the dispersal–extinction cladogenesis model to jointly infer the dated phylogeny and range evolution of the tree fern order Cyatheales. I use data for 101 fossil and 442 extant tree ferns to reconstruct the biogeographic history of the group over the last 220 million years. Fossil-aware reconstructions evince a prolonged occupancy of Laurasia over the Triassic–Cretaceous by Cyathealean tree ferns, which is evident in the fossil record but hidden from analyses relying on neontological data alone. Nonetheless, fossil-aware reconstructions are affected by uncertainty in fossils’ phylogenetic placement, taphonomic biases, and specimen sampling and are sensitive to interpretation of paleodistributions and how these are scored. The present results highlight the need and challenges of incorporating fossils into joint inferences of phylogeny and biogeography to improve the reliability of ancestral geographic range estimation.

Anest, A., Y. Bouchenak-Khelladi, T. Charles-Dominique, F. Forest, Y. Caraglio, G. P. Hempson, O. Maurin, and K. W. Tomlinson. 2024. Blocking then stinging as a case of two-step evolution of defensive cage architectures in herbivore-driven ecosystems. Nature Plants. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-024-01649-4

Dense branching and spines are common features of plant species in ecosystems with high mammalian herbivory pressure. While dense branching and spines can inhibit herbivory independently, when combined, they form a powerful defensive cage architecture. However, how cage architecture evolved under mammalian pressure has remained unexplored. Here we show how dense branching and spines emerged during the age of mammalian radiation in the Combretaceae family and diversified in herbivore-driven ecosystems in the tropics. Phylogenetic comparative methods revealed that modern plant architectural strategies defending against large mammals evolved via a stepwise process. First, dense branching emerged under intermediate herbivory pressure, followed by the acquisition of spines that supported higher speciation rates under high herbivory pressure. Our study highlights the adaptive value of dense branching as part of a herbivore defence strategy and identifies large mammal herbivory as a major selective force shaping the whole plant architecture of woody plants. This study explores the evolution of two traits, branching density and spine presence, in the globally distributed plant family Combretaceae. These traits were found to have appeared in a two-step process in response to mammalian herbivory pressure, revealing the importance of large mammals in the evolution of plant architecture diversity.

Prochazka, L. S., S. Alcantara, J. G. Rando, T. Vasconcelos, R. C. Pizzardo, and A. Nogueira. 2024. Resource availability and disturbance frequency shape evolution of plant life forms in Neotropical habitats. New Phytologist. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.19601

Organisms use diverse strategies to thrive in varying habitats. While life history theory partly explains these relationships, the combined impact of resource availability and disturbance frequency on life form strategy evolution has received limited attention.We use Chamaecrista species, a legume plant lineage with a high diversity of plant life forms in the Neotropics, and employ ecological niche modeling and comparative phylogenetic methods to examine the correlated evolution of plant life forms and environmental niches.Chamaephytes and phanerophytes have optima in environments characterized by moderate water and nutrient availability coupled with infrequent fire disturbances. By contrast, annual plants thrive in environments with scarce water and nutrients, alongside frequent fire disturbances. Similarly, geophyte species also show increased resistance to frequent fire disturbances, although they thrive in resource‐rich environments.Our findings shed light on the evolution of plant strategies along environmental gradients, highlighting that annuals and geophytes respond differently to high incidences of fire disturbances, with one enduring it as seeds in a resource‐limited habitat and the other relying on reserves and root resprouting systems in resource‐abundant habitats. Furthermore, it deepens our understanding of how organisms evolve associated with their habitats, emphasizing a constraint posed by low‐resource and high‐disturbance environments.

Rautela, K., A. Kumar, S. K. Rana, A. Jugran, and I. D. Bhatt. 2024. Distribution, Chemical Constituents and Biological Properties of Genus Malaxis. Chemistry & Biodiversity. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202301830

The genus Malaxis (family Orchidaceae), comprises nearly 183 species available across the globe. The plants of this genus have long been employed in traditional medical practices because of their numerous biological properties, like the treatment of infertility, hemostasis, burning sensation, bleeding diathesis, fever, diarrhea, dysentery, febrifuge, tuberculosis, etc. Various reports highlight their phytochemical composition and biological activities. However, there is a lack of systematic review on the distribution, phytochemistry, and biological properties of this genus. Hence, this study aims to conduct a thorough and critical review of Malaxis species, covering data published from 1965 to 2022 with nearly 90 articles. Also, it examines different bioactive compounds, their chemistry, and pharmacotherapeutics as well as their traditional uses. A total of 191 unique compounds, including the oil constituents were recorded from Malaxis species. The highest active ingredients were obtained from Malaxis acuminata (103) followed by Malaxis muscifera (50) and Malaxis rheedei (33). In conclusion, this review offers an overview of the current state of knowledge on Malaxis species and highlights prospects for future research projects on them. Additionally, it recommends the promotion of domestication studies for rare medicinal orchids like Malaxis and the prompt implementation of conservation measures.

Barrientos-Díaz, O., M. R. Báez-Lizarazo, F. Enderle, A. L. A. Segatto, M. Reginato, and A. C. Turchetto-Zolet. 2024. The Atlantic forest is a potentially climatic suitable habitat for four Neotropical Myrtaceae species through time. Ecological Informatics 80: 102490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2024.102490

Myrtaceae is one of the most species-rich botanical families and is a critical floristic component in regions with high diversity, such as the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. In the Neotropical region, Myrteae is the main tribe of Myrtaceae and includes the most diverse genera Eugenia, Myrcia, Psidium, Myrceugenia, and Campomanesia. Here, we investigated the climatic suitability selected Myrteae species - Campomanesia guazumifolia, C. xanthocarpa, Eugenia pyriformis, and Psidium cattleyanum - across South America. This study spans the present day, three historical periods, and two future climate change scenarios. Our modeling analysis (ENSEMBLE) included environmental variables applied at the times evaluated. Our results suggest that temperature seasonality and precipitation in the driest month were the variables that most influenced climate suitability in the species. The Atlantic Forest lato sensu is a potentially climate suitable habitat for these four species over time, which matches the center of diversification and richness of Myrtaceae, in regions where they coexist and share habitats sympatrically. Historical glaciation events have influenced the retraction and expansion of species distribution, ultimately contributing to their current coexistence in select neotropical ecoregions. Our projections for the future indicate climate suitable habitats in areas similar to present models despite the different effects of climate change. The Atlantic Forest is the key to maintaining Myrteae biodiversity over time. Therefore, it is necessary to combine other approaches (e.g., evolutionary, ecological, and genetic studies) to deeply understand the evolutionary history of this region, its protection, and the maintenance of the biodiversity it harbors.

Wu, R., Y. Zou, S. Liao, K. Shi, X. Nan, H. Yan, J. Luo, et al. 2024. Shall we promote natural history collection today?—Answered by reviewing Ernest Henry Wilson’s plant collection process in China. Science of The Total Environment 915: 170179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.170179

Plant diversity exploration needs to be accelerated because many species will go extinct before their discovery and description, and many species-rich regions remain poorly studied. However, most contemporary plant collections prefer to focus on a specific group, which hinders the exploration and conservation of plant diversity. Therefore, we need an alternative approach to the dilemma at hand. The comprehensive Natural History Collection (NHC), which existed throughout the pinnacle of biodiversity exploration in the 20th century could be considered. We explore Ernest Henry Wilson’s (one of the most successful naturalists in the 20th) plant collections in China as a case to illustrate the advantages of NHC and discuss whether NHC deserves to be promoted again today. From multiple sources, we gathered 19,218 available specimen records of 11,884 collecting numbers assigned and analyzed the collected species, the collection's nature, and restored four routes of his explorations. Results reveal that Wilson's specimens were collected from 28 prefecture-level cities and 38 county-level regions of 7 provinces or municipalities, they belong to 200 families, 1046 genera, 3794 species, and 342 infraspecific taxa, approximately 41 %, 22 %, 10 %, 5 % of Chinese plant families, genera, species, and infraspecific taxa respectively. The Wilson case study shows that NHC is particularly effective in emphasizing species discovery and conservation, recording ecological information, understanding a region's flora, and developing landscape applications. Therefore, we strongly advocate for the expansion of natural history collections in species-rich regions. Furthermore, we recommend the employment of specialized collectors, the enlistment of international cooperation, and the standardization of guidelines for future NHCs.

Xiao, S., S. Li, J. Huang, X. Wang, M. Wu, R. Karim, W. Deng, and T. Su. 2024. Influence of climate factors on the global dynamic distribution of Tsuga (Pinaceae). Ecological Indicators 158: 111533. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2023.111533

Throughout the Quaternary period, climate change has significantly influenced plant distribution, particularly affecting species within the genus Tsuga (Endl.) Carrière. This climatic impact ultimately led to the extinction of all Tsuga species in Europe. Today, there are ten recognized species of Tsuga worldwide, one of listed as a vulnerable species and four as near-threatened species. The genus Tsuga exhibits a disjunctive distribution in East Asia (EA), eastern North America (ENA), and western North America (WNA). It is crucial to comprehend the mechanisms underlying these distributional changes and to identify key climate variables to develop effective conservation strategies for Tsuga under future climate scenarios. In this study, we applied the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model by combining distribution data for Tsuga with abundant pollen fossil data. Our objective was to investigate the climate factors that shape the distribution of Tsuga, identify climate thresholds, and elucidate distribution dynamics in the context of significant climate changes over the past 1070 thousand years (ka). Our findings highlight the pivotal role of precipitation as the key climate factor affecting the distribution of Tsuga. Specifically, in EA, summer precipitation was the key driver, while in North America (NA), winter precipitation exerted greater importance. Moreover, we observed similarities in climatic requirements between Tsuga species in Europe and EA, and declines in summer precipitation and winter temperature were major factors contributing to the extinction of Tsuga species in Europe. Quaternary glacial and interglacial fluctuations exerted substantial impacts on Tsuga distribution dynamics. The disappearance of Tsuga species in the Korean Peninsula may have occurred during the LGM (Last Glacial Maximum). The potential suitable area for Tsuga species in EA expanded during the cold periods, while in NA, it contracted. In the future, climate change may result Tsuga distribution area contraction in both the EA and NA. Our study has identified distinct response patterns of Tsuga in various geographic regions to Quaternary climate change and offers corresponding suggestions for Tsuga conservation. In the future, it will be imperative to prioritize the conservation of natural Tsuga distributions in EA and NA, with a focus on the impacts of precipitation fluctuation on the dynamic distribution of this genus.

Xiaofan, S., Z. Jian, G. Haojie, K. Weipeng, B. Yuke, L. Xiupeng, Y. Enrong, et al. 2023. Island area and climate jointly impact seed plant richness patterns across the Zhoushan Archipelago. Biodiversity Science 31: 23392. https://doi.org/10.17520/biods.2023392

岛屿因具有明确的地理边界, 是检验多个生态学过程如何构建生物多样性的理想平台之一。岛屿属性、气候因素、人 类干扰等通过影响物种选择、扩散等过程, 进而影响着岛屿生物多样性格局。目前对于岛屿植物丰富度格局如何受这些因素 的共同作用的认识仍不充分, 尤其是在人类干扰较强的海岛。本文基于我国第一大群岛舟山群岛92个岛屿较完整的种子植物 分布数据, 采用一般线性回归和广义线性模型(伪泊松分布)定量评估岛屿属性(面积、隔离度、形状指数)、气候(温度、降水 及其季节性)和人类干扰对本土植物总丰富度及不同生长型、叶物候型植物丰富度格局的影响, 采用beta回归分析常绿阔叶木 本比率(常绿阔叶木本植物丰富度/所有阔叶木本植物丰富度)的影响因素。结果发现: 92个岛屿共记录本土植物1,158种, 其中 乔木108种、灌木318种、草本732种; 岛屿面积是对植物总丰富度影响最大的因子, 其次是年降水量和隔离度; 乔木丰富度随 隔离度增加而减少的趋势比灌木和草本更明显; 常绿阔叶和落叶阔叶木本植物丰富度格局与总体基本一致, 年降水量对常绿 阔叶木本的影响大于落叶阔叶木本, 但常绿阔叶木本比率仅受温度季节性的强烈影响。岛屿面积、年降水量、温度季节性等 是塑造舟山群岛所有植物及其不同功能型组(生长型、叶物候型)植物丰富度格局的主要决定因素。