Ciencia habilitada por datos de especímenes

Huber, B. A., G. Meng, J. Král, I. M. Ávila Herrera, M. A. Izquierdo, and L. S. Carvalho. 2023. High and dry: integrative taxonomy of the Andean spider genus Nerudia (Araneae: Pholcidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.

Abstract Ninetinae are a group of poorly known spiders that do not fit the image of ‘daddy long-legs spiders’ (Pholcidae), the family to which they belong. They are mostly short-legged, tiny and live in arid environments. The previously monotypic Andean genus Nerudia exemplifies our poor knowledge of Ninetinae: only seven adult specimens from two localities in Chile and Argentina have been reported in the literature. We found representatives of Nerudia at 24 of 52 localities visited in 2019, mostly under rocks in arid habitats, up to 4450 m a.s.l., the highest known record for Pholcidae. With now more than 400 adult specimens, we revise the genus, describing ten new species based on morphology (including SEM) and COI barcodes. We present the first karyotype data for Nerudia and for its putative sister-genus Gertschiola. These two southern South American genera share a X1X2X3Y sex chromosome system. We model the distribution of Nerudia, showing that the genus is expected to occur in the Atacama biogeographic province (no record so far) and that its environmental niche is phylogenetically conserved. This is the first comprehensive revision of any Ninetinae genus. It suggests that focused collecting may uncover a considerable diversity of these enigmatic spiders.

Gómez Díaz, J. A., A. Lira-Noriega, and F. Villalobos. 2023. Expanding protected areas in a Neotropical hotspot. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology: 1–15.

The region of central Veracruz is considered a biodiversity hotspot due to its high species richness and environmental heterogeneity, but only 2% of this region is currently protected. This study aimed to assess the current protected area system’s effectiveness and to identify priority conservation areas for expanding the existing protected area system. We used the distribution models of 1186 species from three kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, and Fungi) together with ZONATION software, a conservation planning tool, to determine areas that could help expand the current network of protected areas. We applied three different parametrizations (including only species, using the boundary quality penalty, and using corridor connectivity). We found that protecting an additional 15% of the area would increase, between 16.2% and 19.3%, the protection of the distribution area of all species. We propose that the regions with a consensus of the three parametrizations should be declared as new protected areas to expand 374 km2 to the 216 km2 already protected. Doing so would double the protected surface in central Veracruz. The priority areas identified in this study have more species richness, carbon stock values, natural vegetation cover, and less human impact index than the existing protected areas. If our identified priority areas are declared protected, we could expect a future recovery of endangered species populations for Veracruz. The proposed new protected areas are planned and designed as corridors connecting currently isolated protected areas to promote biodiversity protection.

Pelletier, D., and J. R. K. Forrest. 2022. Pollen specialisation is associated with later phenology in Osmia bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Ecological Entomology.

Species exhibit a range of specialisation in diet and other niche axes, with specialists typically thought to be more efficient in resource use but more vulnerable to extinction than generalists. Among herbivorous insects, dietary specialists seem more likely to lack acceptable host plants during the insect's feeding stage, owing to fluctuations in host‐plant abundance or phenology. Like other herbivores, bee species vary in host breadth from pollen specialisation (oligolecty) to generalisation (polylecty).Several studies have shown greater interannual variation in flowering phenology for earlier‐flowering plants than later‐flowering plants, suggesting that early‐season bees may experience substantial year‐to‐year variation in the floral taxa available to them.It was therefore reasoned that, among bees, early phenology could be a more viable strategy for generalists, which can use resources from multiple floral taxa, than for specialists. Consequently, it was expected that the median dates of collection of adult specimens to be earlier for generalist species than for specialists. To test this, phenology data and pollen diet information on 67 North American species of the bee genus Osmia was obtained.Controlling for latitude and phylogeny, it was found that dietary generalisation is associated with significantly earlier phenology, with generalists active, on average, 11–14 days earlier than specialists.This result is consistent with the generalist strategy being more viable than the specialist strategy for species active in early spring, suggesting that dietary specialisation may constrain the evolution of bee phenology—or vice versa.

Lee, W.-H., J.-W. Song, S.-H. Yoon, and J.-M. Jung. 2022. Spatial Evaluation of Machine Learning-Based Species Distribution Models for Prediction of Invasive Ant Species Distribution. Applied Sciences 12: 10260.

Recent advances in species distribution models (SDMs) associated with artificial intelligence (AI) and increased volumes of available data for model variables have allowed reliable evaluation of the potential distribution of any species. A reliable SDM requires suitable occurrence records and variables with optimal model structures. In this study, we developed three different machine learning-based SDMs [MaxEnt, random forest (RF), and multi-layer perceptron (MLP)] to predict the global potential distribution of two invasive ants under current and future climates. These SDMs showed that the potential distribution of Solenopsis invicta would be expanded by climatic change, whereas it would not significantly change for Anoplolepis gracilipes. The models were compared using model performance metrics, and the optimal model structure and spatial projection were selected. The MaxEnt exhibited high performance, while the MLP model exhibited low performance, with the largest variation by climate change. Random forest showed the smallest potential distribution area, but it was robust considering the number of occurrence records and changes in model variables. All the models showed reliable performance, but the difference in performance and projection size suggested that optimal model selection based on data availability, model variables, study objectives, or an ensemble approach was necessary to develop a comprehensive SDM to minimize modeling uncertainty. We expect that this study will help with the use of AI-based SDMs for the evaluation and risk assessment of invasive ant species.

Zhang, H., Y. Wang, Z. Wang, W. Ding, K. Xu, L. Li, Y. Wang, et al. 2022. Modelling the current and future potential distribution of the bean bug Riptortus pedestris with increasingly serious damage to soybean. Pest Management Science 78: 4340–4352.

BACKGROUND: The bean bug Riptortus pedestris has received intense attention in recent years because of its involvement in increasing outbreaks of the staygreen syndrome in soybean (Glycine max (L.)) often causing almost 100% losses of soybean yield in China. However, for this pest of great economic importance, the potential current and future distribution patterns and their underlying driving factors remain unclear. RESULTS: The Maxent modelling under climate, elevation and land-use (including the distribution information of Glycine max) variables showed the current potential distribution covered a vast geographic range, primarily including most parts of South, Southeast and East Asia. Under future environmental scenarios, the suitable habitat was markedly expanded. The areas to newly become highly suitable for R. pedestris were primarily located in Northeast China and West India. Five bioclimatic (BIO13, BIO08, BIO18, BIO02 and BIO07) and one land-use (C3 annual crops) predictors contributed approximately 95% to the modelling, and analyses of curve responses showed that R. pedestris preferred relatively high temperature and precipitation to a certain degree. Our results indicate that a high risk of R. pedestris outbreaks is present in parts of Asia, especially in the growing regions of soybean in China, and this risk will continue in the future. CONCLUSION: The predicted distribution pattern and key regulating factors identified herein could provide a vital reference for developing policies in pest management and further alleviate the incidence of staygreen syndrome in soybean.

Montañez-Reyna, M., J. L. León-Cortés, F. Infante, E. J. Naranjo, and A. Gómez-Velasco. 2022. Diversity and Climatic Distribution of Moths in the Tribe Arctiini (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) in Mexico P. Shi [ed.],. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 115: 253–266.

Abstract The Mexican lepidopteran fauna is particularly diverse, but many moth groups remain poorly documented. The tribe Arctiini is a species-rich group that has been used as a reliable indicator of environmental change. However, little is known about the fauna of the tribe Arctiini in Mexico, and there is no exhaustive review of its diversity and distribution patterns. Our aims were: 1) to account for the species diversity and distribution patterns of the tribe Arctiini; 2) to build spatial distributions and discuss possible changes in the distribution areas of the tribe Arctiini using conservative (RCP 2.6) and liberal (RCP 8.5) future climate scenarios; and 3) to discuss the conservation implications for key taxa that due to their life history characteristics and restricted distribution, might require particular conservation actions. We compiled a total of 16,385 records and 548 species in seven subtribes. Diversity profiles revealed higher cumulative species richness and diversity for the subtribes Phaegopterina, Ctenuchina, and Euchromiina, and we identified a pattern of decreasing species diversity with elevation. In addition, we estimated that 35% and 84% of modeled species in future conservative and liberal climatic scenarios, respectively, would result in significant losses of climatic suitability and shifts in spatial distribution. The endemic species, Virbia semirosea, Poliopastea jalapensis, and Pygoctenucha azteca would likely reduce their distribution by approximately 50% in both climatic scenarios. Maintaining a network of highly threatened habitats (e.g., cloud forests, tropical rain forests) will be essential to preserve persisting species populations and to increase likely (re)colonization events.

Skvarla, M. J., M. A. Bertone, and P. J. Liesch. 2022. Murder Hornet Mayhem: The Impact of the 2020 Giant Hornet Panic and COVID-19 Pandemic on Arthropod Identification Laboratories. American Entomologist 68: 38–43.

(no abstract available)

Boyd, R. J., M. A. Aizen, R. M. Barahona‐Segovia, L. Flores‐Prado, F. E. Fontúrbel, T. M. Francoy, M. Lopez‐Aliste, et al. 2022. Inferring trends in pollinator distributions across the Neotropics from publicly available data remains challenging despite mobilization efforts Y. Fourcade [ed.],. Diversity and Distributions 28: 1404–1415.

Aim Aggregated species occurrence data are increasingly accessible through public databases for the analysis of temporal trends in the geographic distributions of species. However, biases in these data present challenges for statistical inference. We assessed potential biases in data available through GBIF on the occurrences of four flower-visiting taxa: bees (Anthophila), hoverflies (Syrphidae), leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) and hummingbirds (Trochilidae). We also assessed whether and to what extent data mobilization efforts improved our ability to estimate trends in species' distributions. Location The Neotropics. Methods We used five data-driven heuristics to screen the data for potential geographic, temporal and taxonomic biases. We began with a continental-scale assessment of the data for all four taxa. We then identified two recent data mobilization efforts (2021) that drastically increased the quantity of records of bees collected in Chile available through GBIF. We compared the dataset before and after the addition of these new records in terms of their biases and estimated trends in species' distributions. Results We found evidence of potential sampling biases for all taxa. The addition of newly-mobilized records of bees in Chile decreased some biases but introduced others. Despite increasing the quantity of data for bees in Chile sixfold, estimates of trends in species' distributions derived using the postmobilization dataset were broadly similar to what would have been estimated before their introduction, albeit more precise. Main conclusions Our results highlight the challenges associated with drawing robust inferences about trends in species' distributions using publicly available data. Mobilizing historic records will not always enable trend estimation because more data do not necessarily equal less bias. Analysts should carefully assess their data before conducting analyses: this might enable the estimation of more robust trends and help to identify strategies for effective data mobilization. Our study also reinforces the need for targeted monitoring of pollinators worldwide.

Buckner, M. A., and B. N. Danforth. 2022. Climate-driven range shifts of a rare specialist bee, Macropis nuda (Melittidae), and its host plant, Lysimachia ciliata (Primulaceae). Global Ecology and Conservation 37: e02180.

Earth's climate is on track to surpass the proposed mean global temperature change limit of 1.5ºC above pre-industrial levels, threatening to disrupt ecosystems globally. Yet, studies on temperate bee response to climate change are limited, with most studies of non-Apis bees focusing on the eusocial genus Bombus. Here, we assess the response of a rare habitat and host plant specialist bee, Macropis nuda, to projected climate change scenarios. We use species distribution models of M. nuda and its host plant, Lysimachia ciliata, trained on publicly available occurrence records, to evaluate bee distribution and habitat suitability changes under four climate change scenarios. We find that the bee and host plant distributions respond synchronously to increased greenhouse gas emissions, which result in range-wide habitat suitability loss and a northward range shift. These results provide an important example of a temperate solitary bee's response to climate change and help inform conservation efforts to preserve pollinator biodiversity and pollinator-host plant relationships.

Colli-Silva, M., J. R. Pirani, and A. Zizka. 2022. Ecological niche models and point distribution data reveal a differential coverage of the cacao relatives (Malvaceae) in South American protected areas. Ecological Informatics 69: 101668.

For many regions, such as in South America, it is unclear how well the existent protected areas network (PAs) covers different taxonomic groups and if there is a coverage bias of PAs towards certain biomes or species. Publicly available occurrence data along with ecological niche models might help to overcome this gap and to quantify the coverage of taxa by PAs ensuring an unbiased distribution of conservation effort. Here, we use an occurrence database of 271 species from the cacao family (Malvaceae) to address how South American PAs cover species with different distribution, abundance, and threat status. Furthermore, we compared the performance of online databases, expert knowledge, and modelled species distributions in estimating species coverage in PAs. We found 79 species from our survey (29% of the total) lack any record inside South American PAs and that 20 out of 23 species potentially threatened with extinction are not covered by PAs. The area covered by South American PAs was low across biomes, except for Amazonia, which had a relative high PA coverage, but little information on species distribution within PA available. Also, raw geo-referenced occurrence data were underestimating the number of species in PAs, and projections from ecological niche models were more prone to overestimating the number of species represented within PAs. We discuss that the protection of South American flora in heterogeneous environments demand for specific strategies tailored to particular biomes, including making new collections inside PAs in less collected areas, and the delimitation of more areas for protection in more known areas. Also, by presenting biasing scenarios of collection effort in a representative plant group, our results can benefit policy makers in conserving different spots of tropical environments highly biodiverse.